Design and Play – our podcast workflow

Design and Play – our podcast workflow

I have listened to podcasts for a long time. It is the medium that I get most of my learning inspiration from. I have written about my enthusiasm for podcasts here and here. Equally as long I have wanted to start a podcast but have been too… (insert excuse here). At the end of last year, I decided to stop with the excuses and start with the doing. The podcasts that I enjoy the most tend to have great banter between two hosts or an interviewer and interviewee so I set out to find a co-host. Dean Pearman and I had been exchanging great professional banter for quite some time (most of it in GIF form!) and so I asked Dean if he would co-host a podcast all about education and technology called Design and Play.

When Dean and I started recording the Design and Play podcast, we had no clue where to start. I had been collating articles and workflows that people had shared but we were total amateurs. From my reading and my experience working with media, I knew that having great audio was the key (D’uh!) but how do you achieve that when you physically aren’t in the same room. I hope this post sheds a little light on the workflow that we have developed to make Design and Play come to life.

Planning.
All of our planning is done in OneNote. We set out episode guides with information about who is doing what during the show (welcome, guest intro and outro, etc…), a list of key topics/questions that we wish to explore and a collection of resources and links to dive into as well as to share in the show notes. In our first few episodes, we were a little overzealous and tried to cram in too many topics but in the last few episodes, we have worked off two or three key areas and allowed time for the conversation to percolate. We constantly refer to this during the podcast recording but as you can hear during the show, we sometimes let the conversation go where it needs to go. We also have a permanent fortnightly booking in our calendars to record the podcast. We have found fortnightly to be a really manageable time to live our own lives, work, source guests, record, produce and then share the content socially. I would love to record every week but sustainability is a much more important focus for us at the moment.

Gear


I use a Rode Podcaster mike as my microphone of choice. I borrowed this from the library at work and find the sound to be fantastic. It is a USB mike so works brilliantly for recording straight into my computer. Speaking to our AV guy at work on ways to improve sound and he gave me a windsock to stop the popping and limit the heavy breathing during the recording. I record straight into my MacBook Air and compile everything on Garageband. We originally used Garageband as the sole recording tool but found some limitations. Dean and I use Skype during the process to connect with each other and our guests. After the audio in our first episode wasn’t as rich as we would like (Dean was stuck in a well), we did some research and landed on a great tool called eCamm Recorder for Skype. When we start a Skype call, the eCamm recorder window pops up. With a little adjustment of the audio settings, we are set up and ready to go. The reason I like the eCamm recorder so much is that it saves all recordings in an easy to access archive but more importantly, it allows you to export the recording as separate tracks. I’ll touch on this a little more when I discuss post production. Dean and I both use bucket headphones to listen to each other. We also try to find quiet spaces to record although if you listen carefully to the recordings, this isn’t always achieved. We also record a back up track using Garageband of our own audio. This is to prevent crashing and the loss of lots of hard work.

Dean, Terry and I in action on episode 4.

Post-production
The eCamm recordings are then dropped into Garageband and because they are on split tracks, I can adjust the audio levels to bring up the volume of each speaker. This allows the podcast to have balance and for the user to have a pleasant listening experience. The intro is prerecorded using music from www.bensound.com which is a fantastic site for (some) royalty free music. The post production phase takes a little while because there have been episodes with technical difficulty and so sometimes we need to split and cut tracks to edit out certain parts. To ensure quality, I make sure to listen to the track a few times which is time consuming just due to the fact that our episodes tend to run for 45-50 minutes. Once the episode is finished, it is exported as a Mp3 and saved to a shared Dropbox folder. This allows both Dean and I to listen to the complete podcast before it is uploaded. It does feel odd listening to yourself podcast but we want to make sure that the audio is of a high quality. From here, the file is uploaded to our Podbean site. We chose Podbean as a site as it is a site dedicated to Podcast hosting. As we were in the prototyping phase of the podcast, we wanted to be as agile with our solutions as possible. It meant that we also didn’t need to build a website initially. We do plan to do this and to blog to further unpack some of the episodes but for the start-up phase of the podcast, we wanted a site that could handle the hosting of the podcast, the RSS feed generation and the integration with iTunes. Podbean does all of this and as we move to our own website, we can still tap into Podbean to host the podcasts and simply embed the episodes on our site. The iTunes integration with Podbean make it really easy to manage the episode description, shownotes and iTunes specific requirements such as language, authors, etc…

iTunes, SoundCloud, and Stitcher

Each of the spaces we make our podcast available have varying requirements to upload content. For iTunes, I simply followed the instructions found here and signed into PodcastsConnect. For every new episode, I simply refresh the RSS feed (there’s a link that I click in Podcasts Connect) and wait for an hour or so and the episode is live and available on iTunes. For Stitcher I had to sign up for an account which required a little waiting but it automatically updates now once the RSS feed is updated. SoundCloud is a little more manual and we are still operating with the free account, which unfortunately only has an hour upload limit. This means that old episodes are now not available. Podbean is fantastic because the analytics allow us to see where our listeners are from and how they are accessing our episodes. This really allows us to know where to target efforts to continue to promote the show.

Once an episode is live, we promote it via Twitter and LinkedIn. We have a Design and Play Twitter handle and this allows us to keep the word spreading.

The podcast is completely a love job. We love discussing topics of interest and have been overwhelmed with the response from people. We are still very much amateurs and I hope this workflow motivates you to get that podcast you’ve always wanted to start off the ground. Happy to connect and share to talk through any details.

 

A look back

It’s that time of the year again. A time to pause and look back. I have to say that this year has been a hectic one and a year jam packed right up till I finished at work on Friday. Heck the work is still spilling into holiday time. This post is about themes and lessons learnt, not achievements or failures.

Daily deliberate

A huge lesson this year was the value of volume through daily habits. Through podcasts, blog posts, books and then daily practice I learnt that writing, creating, making, learning, improving is a process of continued daily devotion through deliberate practice. I wrote a lot, in fact I filled four notebooks and have countless drafts and Trello boards of ideas but there was a lot of crap in there. There was also a lot of gold. Writing daily kept me coming back to ideas and often a different mode or headspace could take an idea in a different direction. I learnt from many inspiring people that the process of improvement lies not in a one off magical output but the repeating cycles of doing and reflecting. For those looking to develop their voice, I implore you to start. Write for 5 minutes every day in a notebook. Wake up, time yourself and get lost in the five minutes. Keep that practice up every day for a month and then come back to those ideas. You will be amazed with how much you can write and have to say. Once your habit is established, extend your time or if you want to deliberately improve, get someone to read them, either from your notebook or via a blog. Feedback is key to improvement.

The power of stories and narratives
Storytelling is how knowledge has been shared through generations and a great story compels us to listen with intent and interest. Unfortunately many presenters fail to see the narrative and bombard us with slide after slide of slotted together information, without a thread of narrative. I have spent time this year through speaking gigs, practice, sketch noting trying to develop my ability to tell a compelling story. The stories that need to be told are your stories and people need to hear them. I have had the pleasure of working with a few members of my PLN closely this year as they have developed their ability to tell stories and it has been amazing to watch. The world needs less quotes on a slide deck and more powerful stories shared.

Battle between distractions and flow

In this day and age, being a connected educator can be severely distracting. Notification upon notification just chips away at your ability to get anything done. The dopamine craving of a retweet or a thumbs up leads to a decreased ability to get into a state of flow (check out Cal Newport’s Deep work). It also leads to a battle to be in the moment and it is something I have wrestled with immensely. Living close to work doesn’t allow for a lot of debrief time and so I have worked to put the phone away until the kids are in bed…and you know what, the world hasn’t ended and people have sorted out their own shit or they wait till tomorrow. It is so easier to be in the moment when your phone is not within arms reach. I have also employed this strategy with regard to email. I don’t check email until about 10.30am. That first two and half hours is when I am at my sharpest and so I use it for uninterrupted work on projects. I wear noise cancelling headphones to let my team know I’m not to be disturbed and I listen a chill mix I made on Spotify. I thoroughly recommend people developing routines that allow them to get into flow.

Power of belief
I hit rough patches this year a few times and they largely revolved around the question of purpose. I spent time trying to uncover what my purpose was, where I was heading to next. In fact, I probably tried too hard to drive the conversation between myself and it led me to some really barren points during the year. Some great conversations with people I respect and plenty of thinking time while I work out in the morning helped me through there spots. What did I learn? You need to get lost in opportunity and the opportunity you have is the opportunity you need to use to create this. Instead of letting negative thinking or self doubt creep in, step out of your comfort zone (and own head) and walk on.

Incrementalism and persistence.
Incrementalism is an interesting concept and it was this great podcast my wife referred me to by the Freakonomics team (great podcast series) that led me to the concept. Throughout history, monumental shifts in human thinking were not the results of big bang overnight success but incremental steps. Often the initial steps are long forgotten but they were necessary for the change journey to begin. Stephen Dubner from Freakonomics sums it up best with this quote.

“It got me to thinking that incrementalism is to the moonshot, what maintenance is to innovation.”

In our schools, we have moon shots that we aspire to. Large scale reform and change is hard and slow but every day you can take steps towards this. Every step is a step and while it might sometimes be a step backward or a sidestep, it is action. Moving on this with the end in mind helps to keep the the moon shot alive. A key part to this is to share the journey. The best journeys are shared. You also need to stop and take stock. Persistence in the face of huge roadblocks can be daunting but the energy you receive when you stop and look back at how far you have come can provide wind in your sails and help you through rough patches.

What lessons have you learnt this year?  As always, comments welcomed!

Podcasts, podcasts, podcasts!

I have a slight obsession with podcasts. Since I first discovered them back in the good ole iPod days, I have been a regular listener. The EdTech Crew was the first education podcast to grab my attention and I would often extend my drive (the measure of a podcast in my mind) to finish an episode. I caught up with Tony Richards (@itmadesimple) recently and was hounding him to get the band back together so here’s hoping! Since then my listening tastes have shifted. I still enjoy education podcasts but find my interests lie now in more diverse areas.

For education, I personally can’t go past the TIDE (Today in Digital Education) podcast by Doug Belshaw (@dajbelshaw) and Dai Barnes (@daibarnes) or The Education Review (TER) podcast by Corinne Campbell (@corisel) and Cameron Malcher (Capitan_Typo). Both provide tremendous perspective and depth to all things education.

Podcasts that align with my values in life have been growing in popularity on my podcast list. This all started with the Minimalists podcast, a podcast about two guys who gave up six figure jobs and a live of gathering wealth and possessions to live a life of value, joy and fulfillment. The reason I love this podcast is that it makes you question where your values lie and then challenges you to do something about it. This podcast led me to 10% Happier by Dan Harris and Waking up with Sam Harris. Dan Harris is an ABC news anchor that had a panic attack on national television, which led him to take up meditation. Dan claims that meditation makes him about 10% happier, hence the name and he regularly talks to inspiring people about their meditation habits on his show. Being a Weezer fan, I especially loved the Rivers Cuomo episode. Sam Harris (not related) is unbelievably intelligent and his podcast challenges contentious issues in the world as well as discussing the most interesting of topics.

My latest favs are the Unmistakable Creative by Srinivas Rao and The Tim Ferris Show by Tim Ferris. Both Srinivas and Tim look at business, learning, creativity and innovation through interesting perspectives and by interviewing amazing guests. Local representatives on my list are the Huddle Show by Huddle, a human centred design firm based in Melbourne and Future2 by Steve Glaveski (@steveglaveski). I have had the pleasure of getting to know Steve through his coworking space Collective Campus over the past year and his knowledge as well as the calibre of the guests on his show are second to none when it comes to innovation and entrepreneurship expertise. Although this one was a once off podcast series, Seth Godin’s Startup school was also a great listen. I find Seth to be an amazing thinker who can take complex topics and make them accessible through clear narrative and anecdotes. He always blows my mind.

Other great podcasts to check out are Finding Mastery with Michael Gervais, IDEO Futures by IDEO, Office Hours by Dan Pink, Stanford Entrepreneurship videos, Stanford Innovation Lab and Freakonomics radio.

What’s on your podcast list?

Lessons to learn from the naughty kids

Straight off the bat I’m going to tell you that I don’t believe there are naughty kids. There are kids that challenge us, that make poor choices, that rebel but as an educator I believe that all kids are inherently good.  I have taught my fair share of students that have given me grey hairs or have driven me to want to publically share my grasp of colloquial language but I believe that everyone can succeed in the right environment and with the right support. The bagging of students is one reason why I’m not a huge fan of staffrooms.  I understand the need to vent after a challenging lesson but I also believe that there are more productive ways to do this and number one is finding opportunities for positive encounters instead of conflict.  Anyway rant aside, the point of this post is about what we can learn from the “extreme” student.

The word ‘extreme’ is borrowed by IDEO’s Human Centred Design process where interviewing ‘extreme users’ can provide incredible insights and ideas for innovation.  Empathy is the driving force behind the Human Centred Design process and this method forms part of the inspiration stage.  It allows us to take a deep dive into all areas of a problem and look at the problem from all angles. Lets look at an example, getting teachers to use technology in their teaching.  We can instantly think of extremes at both ends.  Think of two people in your life or school that would qualify as either extreme users of technology or extreme non users of technology.  What about their behaviour classifies them as extreme?  When we analyse how they work, what jumps out at you?  When you speak to these people about how they work, what do you discover?  Extreme users often have unique work patterns or workarounds. For the hyper-connected extreme user, he/she might automate mundane tasks through IFTTT (IF This Then That) recipes and this workflow helps create time for more important tasks. For the analog user, their use of their diary to collect anecdotal notes might serve as a powerful formative assessment tool. We can learn new ways of working or highlight practices that are highly efficient.  On the flipside, we can also find new ways to connect the dots and work through our problem. Whatever the case is, there is much to learn here if we spend the time noticing.

Source: https://i2.wp.com/image.slidesharecdn.com/workshop1-digital-innovation-nesta-150206105315-conversion-gate02/95/presentation-by-nesta-on-designing-and-prototyping-made-at-the-oecd-conference-on-innovating-the-public-sector-from-ideas-to-impact-1213-november-2014-16-638.jpg
Source: http://image.slidesharecdn.com/workshop1-digital-innovation-nesta-150206105315-conversion-gate02/95/presentation-by-nesta-on-designing-and-prototyping-made-at-the-oecd-conference-on-innovating-the-public-sector-from-ideas-to-impact-1213-november-2014-16-638.jpg?cb=1423241786

You can find two great resources to help you learn from the extremes from the Stanford d.school and the IDEO design kit.  Being able to empathise with the extreme users in your class can allow you to see the world through their eyes and can help you discover new ways of thinking or design new ways of connecting. We have much to learn from the extremes in our life.

Thanks for reading.

 

 

Start your day on the right foot

I had an encounter with a colleague this week that really stayed with me. We were in the first stage of our new appraisal process at work and were reviewing the student data collected through surveys. The data was pretty much perfect, except in one particular area a student had given the lowest score. The twenty other students had nominated the highest score as their preference. Throughout our discussion, the conversation was brought constantly back to that one score by my colleague. My colleague couldn’t let that one slide and it was a position I could really empathise with. No matter what type of feedback, the negative kind seems to be the one that sticks the most. The score counted for 5% of the total performance but because it was an area my colleague felt they did well, it might as well have counted for 95%. I spent a considerable amount of time reflecting on this after our appraisal conversation. Why does the negative seem to linger longer? I am an incredibly optimistic person. I will always see the glass half full. But like everyone of you, I wake up somedays poisoned by the negativity of my own thoughts. Our toughest opponent is always ourselves. The little voice inside your head that says “You can’t do it”, “They think you’re a fraud”, “You don’t know what you’re talking about”. This opponent is a huge factor when it comes to preventing people taking on new challenges and pushing themselves outside of their comfort zone. So what do we do? How do we quiet this internal monologue?

Framing the day with a good start and a good end is a great way to begin. I have been a long time fan of the writing of Srinivas Rao and of his fantastic podcast, the Unmistakeable Creative. Srinivas uses positive questions to positively frame his day. Questions like ‘What will be great about today?’ or “How can I make today fantastic” or “What am I grateful for?” can help focus on the good that can come with a new day or the good in life in general. He also talks about having a good morning routine. You need to own your morning routine. I wrote last week about how this is my “me” time and I am absolutely religious about it. The things that give me morning energy, that bring me joy are exercise, music and headspace and my morning is built around them. I alternate between running and walking each morning. While I run, I love listening to music or podcasts. On the walking mornings, I spend the time thinking about the day ahead or the events of yesterday. I reflect and I work through positive and negative emotions and by the end of my walk I’m in a better headspace. Negativity is important as we aren’t meant to be up all the time. Finding the balance is key as growth can happen from both. Once I finish exercise I meditate for 10 minutes. This is a practice I have been doing every day since July and I can’t recommend it enough. I use Insight Timer to follow guided meditations and have built it up from 5 minutes over time. I still have days where my brain is on overdrive with thoughts but I am learning to sit and be with the breath. This pause helps me be still and be present. One of my favourite guided meditations says that when everything feels overwhelming, all you need to do is just breathe.  If all else fails, just breathe. The morning routine helped save me from burnout. Now ask yourself, what are you doing to start your day right?

Once the day kicks into gear, how do you balance the positive/negative books in your head? It starts by understanding what gives you energy and how many of these elements are in your every day. In their book, Designing Your Life, authors Bill Burnett and Dave Evans share a happiness hack to develop the life you desire. It starts with a Good Time Journal which is filled in regularly by the individual with the things in their day that make them feel ten feet tall. This in itself is not unique. Merely collating entries is not enough. Burnett and Evans have devised the AEIOU method of happiness analysis where each entry is dissected to discover the elements that made the event/interaction/etc… so meaningful.

A stands for Activities: What you were doing? What was your role? How was the activity set up?
E stands for Environment: Where were you? Describe the place and the feelings you felt
I stands for Interactions: Describe who and what you interacted with. Was it a familiar or unfamiliar interaction?
O stands for Objects: What objects were present and engaged with? Did you make any objects?
U stands for Users: Who else was present and how did they impact your positive and negative state?

Spending time analysing the great moments (no matter how big or small) in your day is an incredibly powerful exercise and Burnett and Evans write that the insights and patterns that appear are the items that you need to build into your day. If a walk after lunch gives you a boost for the afternoon, then find ways to build that into your day. Build the positives into your day.

Finishing a day with this practice helps to focus on the great in your day. As well as this, find time to wind down and look after yourself. Come to a gradual halt and set yourself up for a great brand new day.

Thanks for reading.

You have more time than you think!

Time. A currency so rare and so often too easily spent. For many of us, we could change the world if we only had more time. Here is how I am working to use the precious time that I have.

I use Trello to organise everything Digital. I use a notebook to capture everything offline. Between them, I jot down meeting notes, blog ideas, quotes, to do lists, books to read, absolutely everything. They are my bug lists, my ideas wallet. I use the Kanban technique to make sure that I only focus on one task at a time but I first spend time prioritising my day into my top six items. I select the most pressing one and I work only on that one task until it is complete. I then move on to the next task on the list.

I plan my whole week in half an hour chunks (using Google Sheets so I can access it any device). This is a practice I learnt from reading Cal Newport’s book “So good they can’t ignore you.” I began the practice firstly to see where my time went and I found it really helped with organising my week and releasing the pressure of upcoming deadlines. Breaking your day into half an hour chunks and then collating them to see where your week went is like a calorie counter for time. If I dedicated half an hour to a particular task, I made sure that I was working on that one task. It is amazing how much you waste without knowing it.  I begin my week by looking at the items that I can’t change. I add these into the timeslots. My morning ritual is locked down every day. I go to bed to get eight hours sleep EVERY night. This practice has changed my life. I wake up refreshed and ready to tackle the day EVERY day. I wake at 5.30am every morning and if you do the math on that one, it is a 9.30pm bedtime and I love that. I began my morning ritual as a way of getting some time to myself. For those with kids, you’ll know what I’m on about. I need time for me. I am an introvert who gains energy by being by myself. The morning ritual of exercise, stretching and meditation helps get me physically and mentally ready for the day. It also means that when the kids are up and about, I am home and present.  Once I have locked down the items that can’t moved, I add in the items that I wish to use my time on. This is my priority list. As you can see in the image below, I even write in when I drop off my kids to school and when is family time.  This might seem odd but I struggled with transitioning from work to home. Now I follow the list and focus on being present. I have noticed the difference in my headspace. I plan for success and this means getting the work out of my head and into an easy to manage planner. This deliberate practice helps reduce my stress because I have allocated the mental resources to map it out and then the time counter keeps me honest.

screenshot-2016-10-02-20-23-47

I used to check Twitter and emails while I was at home in the morning but I am changing that habit. I still check Twitter from time to time but I have stopped checking email as it would often ruin the start to my day.  Email is the one thing in my job I would give up in a heartbeat. I now don’t check email until 10.30am. I am at my most creative and sharpest at 8am and so I work on my big ticket items, my number one priorities for the first two and half hours of my work day. I used to spend my days going from meeting to meeting and just checking email and it made me miserable. I would leave work feeling like I accomplished nothing but the acquisition of more work and less time to do it. Working in two and a half hour blocks also really helps me get into the flow of work. I work in an open plan office and so I put my headphones to show everyone that I don’t wish to be distracted. It doesn’t always work but it does help me keep in the zone. I made the change to not check my email after reading in Cal’s book the following question:

“Do you want to be known as the person who is good at responding to email or the person who gets things done?”

Cal Newport

I know which one my Principal would want. Checking my email only twice a day also means that I skim looking for the important emails. If a response requires more than 2-3 minutes of my time, it is a phone call or a visit to that person. This is in my opinion is much more personable and time efficient. The next item on my time list I am looking to reduce is my meetings. Meetings are way too long and often a poor use of time (gross generalisation here but my two cents). I want to try walking meetings. It worked by Steve Jobs and it really makes sense to me. Everyone gets exercise, gets away from screens and connects with other humans. What’s not to like!

If you spend time analysing where your time goes, you will see where the leaks are. You have more time than you think. It’s just how you design your day to take advantage of it to make it work for you.

I would love to hear your strategies for managing your time. Comments always welcome!

The art of noticing.


My daughter borrowed KooKoo Kookaburra by Gregg Driese from the school library last week (absolutely beautiful story) and as we were reading I came across this gem. You have two eyes, two ears and only one mouth. So you should look and listen twice as much as you speak. It was a key theme for the book and Zara and I spent a long while talking about the meaning. We talked about the importance of truly listening to people. Afterwards this conversation kept turning over in my head. In meetings or conversations, am I truly listening to the words and meaning or am I hearing and preparing to reply? How about you? In the busyness of life, it is so easy to forget.

The story reminded me of a great technique employed by IDEO in their Human Centred Design approach. It is called “Listening with your eyes”. The technique requires you spend time watching and truly observing and noticing. Noticing the detail, the interactions, the movements in your environment can tell you so much about a situation. Taking the time to notice the human detail in a situation can paint a really interesting picture. I spent time in a cafe and while it felt wierd and slightly voyeuristic, I did pick up on so much around me. There is so much detail if you take the time to notice. Take a minute to stop and just observe. What do you see? How do people interact? How do they move? What stands out? What subtle details can you see?

Ten years ago my brother passed away suddenly and time in my life stood still. Days went for weeks and weeks for months. Time crawled. I remember nearly every moment.  Since his death, it’s sad to say but there have been so many days that have gone by the wayside unnoticed. I wouldn’t say unmemorable just normal. We’ve all had that sensation. Think of a drive you’ve completed recently where you arrived at your destination and then realised that you didn’t remember a thing about getting there. Your brain was on autopilot. Now we need the autopilot in our lives but there is so much to see if we take the time to notice. When Kev died, I noticed the warmth of the sun more than ever. I still do. Whenever I run on a warm day and I’m listening to our shared taste in music, I feel like it’s a warm embrace. That sensation makes me feel like he’s running with me. When he passed, it was the middle of winter and there was a streak of hot days and so this sensation is really important to me. We were also inundated with butterflies. They were everywhere…..or maybe I just noticed them more because of my headspace. Whatever it was, the butterfly is a symbol that regularly catches my eye. My daughter even now calls butterflies Uncle Kev. Noticing the butterflies can change my mood in a heartbeat. For example, the other day I left my house in a stink of a mood and as I was closing the door, a butterfly landed on my shoulder and I had a moment with the universe.

In education, there is so much to notice if we take the time. Whether it’s how students transition between classes, the interactions between teachers and students in a classroom, the look on a child’s face, whatever it is, you can capture so much “real” data by stopping, looking and listening. Capturing this information can also help problem find and problem solve in your schools. I take a notebook everywhere with me so that I can write down the little details and this curation has assisted me so much with planning future strategy. NoTosh create Project Nests to capture this detail as it can lead to brilliant insights. For the team at Google Ventures, it contributes to the War room, a space to layout strategy and to see the whole playing field. This collection of field notes can help to provide the colour to a black and white problem and can allow for new and exciting innovations to develop. It can allow you to see what Amy Herman calls the “pertinent negative“, the details or behaviours that aren’t there. No matter what it is, there is much to gain from listening with your eyes.